Kodo is a high-performance erasure coding library with a special focus on network coding algorithms and codecs. Kodo is written in C++ and it was designed to ensure high performance, testability, flexibility and extendability.

The Kodo libraries expose a simple Application Programming Interface (API) which allows a programmer to take advantage of network coding in a custom application. Kodo supports various network coding codecs, e.g. standard Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC), Systematic RLNC, Sparse RLNC. Each algorithm offers unique advantages and drawbacks as well as a different set of parameters that can be tuned in real time. For example, this can be employed to adapt to varying cellular channels, to change the amount of redundancy in a distributed storage network, or to adapt to node failures in meshed networks.

Kodo is available under a research- and education-friendly license, and it enables researchers to implement new codes and algorithms, perform simulations, and benchmark the coding operations on any platform where a modern C++ compiler is available. The library provides a multitude of building blocks and parameters that can be combined to create custom codes.

Codecs and Repositories

The Kodo libraries implement various codecs and each codec has its own git repository. As a first step, it is recommended to choose a single codec/project and work with the API that is exposed by that project.

Note that these repositories are private on Github, so you need to complete all steps in the Getting Started guide before you can access them.

kodo-rlnc: https://github.com/steinwurf/kodo-rlnc
The kodo-rlnc project implements a standard RLNC codec and provides a simple, high-level C++ API which is the the recommended starting option for most users. The RLNC codec has a number of parameters that can be configured to fit the user requirements: e.g. the code density can be adjusted and the coding vector representation can include the full vector or just a random seed to reduce overhead.
kodo-fulcrum: https://github.com/steinwurf/kodo-fulcrum
The Fulcrum network codes use a concatenated code structure with an “outer” and “inner” code. They provide an end-to-end performance that is close to that of a large field size network coding system for high–end receivers, while simultaneously catering to low–end ones that can only decode in GF(2). For a detailed description of the Fulcrum codec, see the following paper by Lucani et. al.
kodo-perpetual: https://github.com/steinwurf/kodo-perpetual
Perpetual RLNC is a sparse and structured code where the non-zero coding coefficients are localized to a specific part of the coding vector. The width of this non-zero part is analogous to the density parameter of random sparse codes. This approach allows for structured decoding, which can yield a substantially higher throughput than random sparse codes, especially for large generation sizes.
kodo-slide: https://github.com/steinwurf/kodo-slide
The kodo-slide library implements a sliding window RLNC code that could provide interesting benefits over a traditional block code. See the project documentation for more details.
kodo-reed-solomon: https://github.com/steinwurf/kodo-reed-solomon
Traditional Reed-Solomon (RS) code which does not support recoding. The current implementation uses a systematic Vandermonde matrix as described in RFC 5510.
kodo-core: https://github.com/steinwurf/kodo-core
The kodo-core repository contains general erasure coding components that are used by the other codec implementations that are listed above. This project also includes a carousel code (or repetition code) where the data is simply transmitted in a round-robin fashion. This code can be useful for simulation and testing purposes.

Language Bindings and Wrappers

kodo-python: https://github.com/steinwurf/kodo-python
This library provides high-level Python bindings for Kodo. The simple examples demonstrate how to use the basic functionality of Kodo through the Python API. This option is recommended for Python-based projects and for programmers who are not familiar with C++.
kodo-rlnc-c: https://github.com/steinwurf/kodo-rlnc-c
The kodo-rlnc-c library provides a simple C API that allows the programmer to use kodo-rlnc in a C program. The C API also enables interoperability with other programming languages that are not directly supported by the Kodo libraries.
kodo-c: https://github.com/steinwurf/kodo-c
The kodo-c library is a deprecated project that was created to provide a C wrapper over some earlier implementation of our RLNC codecs. This project will not be updated, please use kodo-rlnc-c if a C wrapper is needed.
kodo-cpp: https://github.com/steinwurf/kodo-cpp
The kodo-cpp library is a deprecated project that was designed as a high-level C++ wrapper over kodo-c and it only exposed a limited API to access the Kodo codecs. This project will not be updated, please use kodo-rlnc that provides a complete C++ API.


kodo-basic-simulations: https://github.com/steinwurf/kodo-basic-simulations
The kodo-basic-simulations project contains some basic Network Coding simulations using our simple C++ simulator where you can define simple network topologies.
kodo-ns3-examples: https://github.com/steinwurf/kodo-ns3-examples
This project contains examples for using Kodo with the ns-3 network simulator. This can be a great starting point for researchers who are mainly interested in network simulations.


The following generic features are available in the various Kodo libraries.

One of the most prominent features of Network Coding is the possibility to use coding at the intermediate network nodes (recoding) and not only at the sender (encoding) and the receiver (decoding).
Systematic coding
The sender can send some or all of the original symbols within a given block uncoded. Coded packets can be generated later to repair any packet losses. Systematic coding is useful in simple topologies as it increases the decoding throughput and decreases the coding overhead.
On-the-fly coding
The sender can encode over a growing block of data. This is useful for live content where the data becomes available over time, potentially at a variable rate.
Partial decoding
The receiver can decode some of the original symbols before the entire data block is decoded. This approach is more compatible with error-resilient codecs (video, audio) as instead of receiving the whole data block or nothing, a partial data block can be retrieved.
Real-time adjustable density
The density at the sender can be adjusted in real time which permits adaptation to changing network conditions.
File encoder
The sender can directly encode data files that are automatically split into generations.
Zero-copy API
The encoder and decoder can operate directly on user provided buffers, eliminating the need for costly copy operations.
Object pooling
The library can re-use existing encoder and decoder instances to facilitate efficient memory management.
Hardware optimized (on select hardware)
Optimizations for various CPU architectures, using SIMD instructions and various coding algorithms to provide the best performance.

Platform Support

Kodo is portable to a wide range of platforms. The Kodo Specifications page provides an overview of the supported platforms and compilers.

We ensure compatibility with the supported platforms through a suite of unit tests, the current status can be checked at the Steinwurf Buildbot page. At the bottom of the main page, you can find detailed information about which platforms and compilers are currently tested by Steinwurf.


The Buildbot is used for several different libraries. The various Kodo libraries can be found in the overview on the main page.